Archive for the ‘Psychiatry’ Category

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Some books on psychiatry in China

October 24, 2012

Kleinman, Arthur: Deep China: The Moral Life of the Person, What Anthropology and Psychiatry Tell Us about China Today

Incayawar, Mario: Psychiatrists and Traditional Healers: Unwitting Partners in Global Mental Health

Ramsay, Guy: Shaping Minds: A Discourse Analysis of Chinese-Language Community Mental Health Literature

Martha Livingston: The Minds of the Chinese People: Mental Health in New China

Wen-Shing Tseng, David Y.H. Wu: Chinese Culture And Mental Health

Veronica Pearson: Mental Health Care in China: State Policies, Professional Services and Family Responsibilities

Peggy Simpson: Family-Based Mental Health Care in Rural China

Kam-shing Yip: Mental Health Service In The People’s Republic Of China: Current Status And Future Developments

Tsung-yi Lin: Mental Health Planning For One Billion People: A Chinese Perspective

John J. Kao: Three Millennia Of Chinese Psychiatry

Hugh L. Shapiro: The view from a Chinese asylum: defining madness in 1930s Peking

Wai-On Phoon and Ian Macindoe: Untangling the threads: perspectives on mental health in Chinese communities

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Psychiatry in current China

October 24, 2012

John G. Kerr (China Presbyterian medical missionary)

Neurasthenia was coined by George Beard, meaning exhaustion of nervous system, the symptoms include weakness, fatigue, anxiety, headache, poor concentration and memory loss. It has been supplanted by depression in US, but still used in China, though the diagnosis of neurasthenia is reducing and depression is increasing in China. Arthur Kleinman did research in China in 1980’s, diagnosed 87% of neurasthenia patients as depression in American standard, and concluded that the physical symptoms of neurasthenia represented “somatic idioms of distress”.

There are less than 20000 psychiatrists in China with 1.3 billion people, which is 15 times less than that in USA.

5.6% people who developed depression in Beijing/Shanghai received treatment (2009), which is 6 times below that in USA.

___from Kleinman, Arthur: Deep China: The Moral Life of the Person, What Anthropology and Psychiatry Tell Us about China Today

Psychiatry in China:

  1. Mentally ill patients with obvious disorganized behavior will be sent to psychiatric hospitals. But there are still many patients who have never been diagnosed and treated due to lack of access to psychiatric facilities or due to poverty.
  2. Patients with neurosis and most patients with depression are often diagnosed with neurasthenia, autonomous nervous disorder or other somatic illness. Most of them seek treatment from internal medicine doctors or other non-psychiatric physicians.
  3. People who are facing life stress, crisis or suffering from emotional stress without somatic complains mainly need psychological counseling or psychotherapy.
  4. All patients are likely to seek help from TCM.

____from Zhao, Xudong: Mental Health in Contemporary China in Incayawar, Mario: Psychiatrists and Traditional Healers: Unwitting Partners in Global Mental Health

 

 

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Theory on Psychiatry and Psychology

October 24, 2012

Four humors of blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. //Darwinism, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and phenomenology, social constructionist analyses, biological psychiatry// Monism, materialism, mechanism, realism, normalism//

Psychotherapies:

1) beck’s cognitive behavioral therapy; 2) klerman and Weissman’s interpersonal therapy; 3) Sifneos’s and Davanloo’s brief psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy; 4) Kernberg’s transference focused psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

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Some psychiatrists and psychologists

October 24, 2012

William James, Sigmund Freud, Karl Jaspers, Thomas Szasz, Eric Kendal, Julius Wagner-Jauregg, António Egas Moniz (lobotomy), Hervey Cleckley, Manfred Sakel (insulin shock therapy), Ugo Cerletti and Lucio Bini (electroconvulsive therapy) Ernest Jones, Stanley Hall, Carl Jung, Abraham Arden Brill, Sándor Ferenczi, James Jackson Putnam, Adolf Meyer, William Alanson White, Harry Stack Sullivan, Erik Erikson,Karen Horney, Alfred W. Adler, Heinz Hartmann, Ernst Kris, Rudolph Loewenstein, Rene Spitz, Margaret Mahler, Franz Alexander, David Rapaport

 

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List of important psychiatrists

August 5, 2011

Sorunus, Aretaeus and Celsus on phrenitis. mania, melencholia and their empirical treatment with blood letting, catharitics, menaces, torture, whipping and brutal ducking.

Paracelsus on unconscious, epilepsy and mania.

John Weyer on devil and witch.

Felix Plater on insane, he divides the mental diseases into imbecilitas, consternatio, alienatio and defatigatio.

Thomas Sydenham on hysteria, and treatment with phlebotomy, purging, iron preparations, milk diets and horse riding.

Thomas Willis on dementia paralytica and myasthenia gravis. Hysteria is a disease of brain but not uterus.

Robert Burton on The Anatomy of Melencholy.

George Ernst Stahl on animism. He divided mental illness into sympathetic (due to disease of organ) and pathetic (functional with no organ basis).

Giovanni Battista Morgagni on autopsy of mentally ill patients.

Albrecht von Haller, Robert Whytt, Luigi Galvani on nerves.

Pierre Cabanis on physiological psycology, thought is the function of brain.

Erasmus Darwin on Darwin chair to treat mental illness.

Franz Joseph Gall on cerebral localization.

Philippe Pinel on moral treatment and classification of mental disorders. Cause of mental illness is due to heredity, faulty education, irregular way of life, spasmodic passions, oppressive passions and gay passions. He divided mental illness into mania, melancholia, dementia and idiocy. He did statistical investigation of mental illness.

Jean Esquirol on hallucination and delusion.

Jacques Joseph Moreau de Tours on degeneration theory, marijuana and madness.

Benedict Augustin Morel on degeneration theory. Degeneration are deviations from the normal human type, which are transmissible by heredity and which deteriorate progressively towards extinction.

August Hirsch romantic stage of mental illness.

Johann Christian August Heinroth on disease of soul.

Christian Friederich Nasse, Johann Baptist Friedreich, Maximilian Jacobi on somaticism of mental illness.

Carl Friedrich Flemming, Christian Friedrich Wilhelm Roller  and Heinrich Philipp August Damerow on holistic approach of mental illness.

Wilhelm Griesinger as mechanist, he believed in integration of the mentally ill into society, and proposed that short-term hospitalization be combined with close cooperation of natural support systems.

Theodor Meynert on cerebral anatomy, developed theories in regards to correlations between neuroanatomical and mental processes.

Korbinian Brodmann on his definition of the cerebral cortex into 52 distinct regions from their cytoarchitectonic characteristics.

Hugo Karl Liepmann on apraxia, remembered for his pioneer work involving cerebral localization of function.

Carl Werniche and Paul Broca on aphasia.

Eduard Hitzig on the interaction between electric current and the brain.

Bernhard von Gudden on mapping and describing the paths, connections, origins/termini and neuroanatomical centers of cranial and optic nerve networks.

Carl Friedrich Otto westphal on agoraphobia, homosexual, Westphal-Piltz syndrome, Erb-Westphal symptom and Edinger-Westphal nucleus.

Franz Nissl, Alois Alzheimer, Emil Kraepelin on neuropathological basis of mental illness. Kraepelin is specifically credited with the classification of what was previously considered to be a unitary concept of psychosis, into two distinct forms: manic depression and dementia praecox (schizophrenia).

Eugen Bleuler on schizophrenia.

Ernst Kretschmer developed a differential diagnosis between schizophrenia and manic depression and classification system that can be seen as one of the earliest exponents of a constitutional  approach.

Hermann Rorschach for inkblot test.

Adolf Meyer believed that mental illness results from personality dysfunction, rather than brain pathology. He designated a psychobiological approach to psychiatric patients that embraced researching and noting all biological, psychological, and social factors relevant to a case.

Hans Berger is the first to record human electroencephalograms.

Jean-Martin Charcot, Joseph Babinski, Franz Mesmer, Hippolyte Bernheim, Ambroise-Auguste Liebeault, on hypnosis and hysteria.

Pierre Janet, He was one of the first people to draw a connection between events in the subject’s past life and his or her present day trauma, and coined the words ‘dissociation’ and ‘subconscious’.

Sigmund Freud, Eugen Bleuler, Carl Jung, Sándor Ferenczi, Alfred Adler on psychoanalysis.

Clifford Whittingham Beers is the founder of the American mental hygiene movement.

Ivan Pavlov on reflex research and psychiatric model in dogs.

Julius wagner-Jauregg on treatment of mental disease by inducing a fever.

Jacob Klaesi known for the introduction of the Sleep Treatment.

Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev known for noting the role of the hippocampus in memory, his study of reflexes.

Ludvig Puusepp, Egas Moniz, on introducing the controversial psychosurgical procedure leucotomy.

Kurt Schneider on schizophrenia.

Karl Theodor Jaspers on biographical method, he believed that psychiatrists should diagnose symptoms (particularly of psychosis) by their form rather than by their content.

Aubrey Louis on melancholia and obsessional illness.

Michael Shepherd, on altering the course of psychiatric care in Britain and development of epidemiological psychiatry.

Seymour S. Kety is credited with making modern psychiatry a rigorous and heuristic branch of medicine by applying basic science to the study of human behavior in health and disease.

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Shyness Test

December 28, 2010

 

SHYNESS RESEARCH INSTITUTE SURVEY

Please answer the following questions as honestly as possible.

 

1) Do you consider yourself to be a shy person?

_*_ yes __ no

 

2) If yes, have you always been shy (were shy previously and still are)?

_*_ yes __ no

 

3) If no to question 1, was there ever a prior time in your life when you were shy?

__ yes __ no

 

If no, then you are finished with this survey. Thanks. If you have answered “yes” to any of the above, please continue.

 

4. How often do you experience (have experienced) these feelings of shyness? (Circle your choice)

 

1 = every day  *

2 = almost everyday

3 = often, nearly every other day

4 = once or twice a week

5 = occasionally, less than once a week

6 = rarely, once a month or less

 

5. Compared to your peers (of similar age, sex, and background), how shy are you?

 

1 = much more shy *

2 = more shy

3 = about as shy

4 = less shy

5 = much less shy

 

6. How desirable is it for you to be shy?

 

1 = very undesirable

2 = undesirable *

3 = neither

4 = desirable

5 = very desirable

 

7. Is (or was) your shyness ever a personal problem for you?

 

1 = yes, often

2 = yes, sometimes *

3 = yes, occasionally

4 = rarely

5 = never

 

8. Types of people who make you feel shy: (Check all that apply)

 

___ my parents

___ my siblings (brothers and/or sisters)

___ other relatives

___ friends

_*__ strangers

___ foreigners

__*_ authorities (by virtue of their knowledge-intellectual superiors, experts)

___ elderly people (much older than you)

_*__ children (much younger than you)

_*__ persons of the opposite sex, in a group

___ persons of the opposite sex, one-to-one

___ a person of the same sex, in a group

___ a person of the same sex, one-to-one

___ authorities (by virtue of their role-police, teacher, superior at work)

 

9. What do you believe is the cause of your shyness? (Check all that apply)

 

_*_ born shy

__ emotional abuse

__ physical abuse

__ overprotected parents

__ faulty/inconsistent parental discipline practices

__ negative emotional experiences(s) during childhood involving peers

__ negative emotional experiences(s) during childhood involving individuals in position of authority (e.g., teachers or coaches)

__ negative emotional experience(s) during adolescence involving peers

__ negative emotional experience(s) during adolescence involving individuals in position of authority (e.g., teachers or coaches)

__ being forced to engage in certain public activities as a child (e.g., dance or musical recitals, organized sports)

__ family disruption (e.g., moving frequently or death of parent)

__ other siblings

__ parents divorcing

__ parent(s) remarrying

__ negative emotional experience(s) during young adult involving peers (e.g., roommates, classmates, co-workers)

_*_ being easily embarrassed

__ negative emotional experience(s) during young adulthood involving individuals in positions of authority (e.g., professors supervisors)

__ lack of social skills

__ lack of self-confidence

__ low self-esteem

__ being easily aroused

_*_ parents are shy

_*_ excessive self-consciousness

__ other explanation(s) not listed above– please explain (use additional space if necessary)

__ do not know what caused your shyness

 

10. What area(s) of your personal life has your shyness created problems for you?

 

*__ meeting new people

*__ developing friendships

__ dating

__ establishing intimate relationships

__ other areas of your personal life — please explain (use additional space if necessary)

 

11. What area(s) of your professional life has your shyness created problems for you?

 

__ talking with co-workers at work

*__ speaking up in meetings

*__ asking for a promotion and/or raise

*__ socializing with co-workers at lunch or after work

__ socializing with clients

__ socializing during professional meeting

__ expressing your ideas to co-workers or clients

*__ public presentations to co-workers or clients

__ other areas of your professional life–please explain (use additional space if necessary)

 

12. What area(s) of your educational life has your shyness created problems for you?

 

*__ speaking up in class

_*_ participating in student organizations/sports

*__ asking for letters of recommendations

__ seeking advice and/or assistance from teachers outside of the classroom

*__ asking questions during class

*__ participating in group discussions/projects

*__ giving a presentation to the class

__ making friends with classmates

__ asking for help from other classmates

__ other areas of your educational life–please explain (use additional space if necessary)

 

13. Do you think Your shyness can be overcome? (Circle your choice)

 

1= yes *

2 = no

3 = uncertain

 

14. Are you willing to seriously work at overcoming it? (Circle your choice)

 

1 = yes, definitely

2 = yes, perhaps *

3 = not sure

4 = no

 

15. What actions have you taken to overcome you shyness? (Check all those that apply)

 

*__tried to go out to meet people (e.g., night clubs, dances, parties, coffee houses, bookstores)

*__ tried to make conversation with individuals I don’t know but would like to

__ read self-help books

__ individual therapy

__ joined a fitness or recreational club or organization (e.g., tennis club)

__ group therapy

__ internet chat rooms and/or discussion groups

__ self-medication (e.g., consumed alcohol and/or illegal drugs)

__ tried to change the way you think about yourself

__ changed your physical appearance

__ attended seminars or workshops on shyness

__ served as a volunteer

__ joined professional organizations related to your job or career

__ signed up with a dating or match-making service

__ joined a religious or spiritual group

__ attended self-esteem workshop or seminar

__ relaxation or biofeedback training

__ taken prescribed medication

__ stress management training

__ others actions not listed above–please explain (use additional space if necessary)

 

__ no action taken

 

Tell us more about your shyness. Feel free to use additional sheets to answer these items:

 

Describe factors you believe have contributed to your shyness.

Describe how your shyness is expressed.

Describe what problems your shyness has created for you in your personal, social, and/or professional life.

Describe what you have tried to do to overcome your shyness.

Describe how you use the internet to deal with your shyness.

What about your shyness would you like to known more about?

What else would you like to say about your shyness?

 

Since I am a neuroscientist doing research, I am quite curious about why I am so shy and why it’s so hard to overcome…the shyness accompanies me since I was in school, and it went through my adolescence till adulthood. I always feel nervous when speaking in groups, and don’t like to talk while socializing with friends, always a listener…but never a problem if I face one person…I tried to avoid any public show when in school, or even avoid meeting family visitors at home. I still have the problem when talking to superior person or pretty women. The most recent case was when I took USLME step2 CS exam, the special patient during practice commented, “he is so nervous, that I can see from his trembling hands and voices”. But I got better and better with practice and felt more confident later. I plan to be a psychiatrist in the future, but not sure if my shyness could be a fatal weakness for my practice.

 

I have noticed this problem since childhood, and tried to overcome it by doing the things that I don’t like to do, for example to speak in public, to meet and play with friends, but never really reached a point that could low down my self-esteem…and that’s the reason I chose to do research after graduating from medical school. And till now I am still staying in my comfort zone with an isolated social life, with a few good friends only. I like to help people but don’t like to show off, and people around me always like me, no matter Chinese or European or American, I’m always nice to people and they think I’m sweet, just shy…so I guess my shyness is not serious, not a disorder yet.

 

I also found that several of my cousins from my father side have the same problem, especially hand trembling is very obvious in my family. So I think it’s basic an inherited thing. There are some differences though, like my brother does show the trembling, but he is not shy, just opposite to my social habit, open and talkative and like socialization with many friends and strangers, he is a good leader too.

 

The thing I am interested is to find the gene in my family that is responsible for this shyness and using medication to control might be an easy way.

 

Thank-you for your participation,

Bernardo J. Carducci, Ph.D., Director

Shyness Research Institute

Indiana University Southeast

New Albany, IN 47150

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Neuroanalysis by AVI PELED

October 31, 2009

Book: Neuroanalysis, bridging the gap between neuroscience, psychoanalysis and psychiatry

Author: Avi Peled MD

Comments: The author tried a new way of organizing the diagnosis standards of psychiatric diseases compared DSM used in clinic. It’s called clinical brain profiling (CBP), which  integrates all descriptive signs/symptoms seen in all psychiatric diseases into 3 categories: neural complexity disorder (NCD), neural resilience insufficiency (NRI), context sensitive processing decline (CPD). NCD includes connectivity imbalance (segregation vs integration) and hierarchy imbalance (bottom up insufficiency vs top down shift), NRI includes optimization imbalance (de-optimization vs hyper-optimization) and constrain frustration imbalance), CPD includes contexts biases and organization level. He gave a weight to each signs and made a  system map with input and output model.  With this new mapping, he gave some case analysis of patients to prove that it helps to better diagnose and treat patients than the DSM bible.

In fact, it’s a way of observing the patient in a systematic way, and not novel idea since it’s been used for thousands of years before the modern medicine. For example his considering the diseases  situations where connectivity or order disrupted is quite close to “Jing Luo”  and “Qi” theory, the Yin/Yang balance theory in  Chinese medicine. On the other hand, it tries to integrate the new knowledge of neuroscience research and psychology into the clinic practice, may help  physicians to have a better idea of the patient, and help neuroscientists to clarify the signs and symptoms described by physicians.

The mechanic system is accurately designed and run and brain is a complicated mechanic  system with plasticity. In the future, we may detect the weak point of each psychiatric patient, and fix it with correlate medicine. While the diagnosis is based on more objective observations like MRI, and the computation of the system input/output networks than subjective descriptions now used in DSM. The author would also agree that Mathematicians have the keys to the mysteries of brain, which is part of his interest declared in the book.

Is schizophrenia a disease? just like people have argued, is Alzheimer’s disease a disease? The medicine need new definitions…